Limitations and risk factors of cannabis


In rare occasions, cannabis use can induce a state of psychosis in those individuals that have a genetic predisposition for it. As a result, patients with a (family) history of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, should be under careful psychiatric monitoring when using cannabis.

Heart disease

Cannabinoids can have a strong, but temporary, effect on heart rate and blood pressure. Patients with a history of heart disease or receiving any type of heart medicine should use cannabis under careful supervision by a medical doctor.


There are indications that use of cannabis during pregnancy can affect the development of the unborn child. Because certain components of cannabis - including THC - are excreted in breast milk, the use of medicinal cannabis is not advised while breastfeeding.

Liver disease

After the use of cannabis, the liver is the main organ involved in chemically altering the cannabinoids as part of its function to remove external substances from the body (metabolism).

The effects of cannabis may therefore be significantly different in patients with a liver disease.